3.3 – Bibliographie sur les Scripts, TCS et FpC

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Angus, L., Chur-Hansen, A., Duggan, P. A qualitative study of experienced clinical teachers’ conceptualisation of clinical reasoning in medicine: Implications for medical education. Focus on Health Professional Education, Vol 19, No 1, 2018, pp. 52-64.

Hege I, Kononowicz AA, Berman NB, Lenzer B, Kiesewetter J. Advancing clinical reasoning in virtual patients – development and application of a conceptual framework. GMS Journal for Medical Education. 2018;35(1).

Keemink, Y., Custers, E., van Dijk, S. & ten Cate, O. Illness script development in pre-clinical education through case-based clinical reasoning training. International Journal of Medical Education. 2018;9:35-41.

Lee LA, Chao YP, Huang CG, Fang JT, Wang SL, Chuang CK, Kang CJ, Hsin LJ, Lin WN, Fang TJ, Li HY. Cognitive Style and Mobile E-Learning in Emergent Otorhinolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery Disorders for Millennial Undergraduate Medical Students: Randomized Controlled Trial. J Med Internet Res 2018; 20 (2) : e56.

Merisier, S, Larue, C, Boyer, L. How does questioning influence nursing students’ clinical reasoning in problem-based learning? A scoping review. Nurse Education Today, Available online 10 March 2018.

Mylopoulos M, Kulasegaram K, Woods NN. Developing the experts we need: Fostering adaptive expertise through education. In Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice. 2018;1–4.

Royan, Regina, Wu, Christine, Theyyunni, Nik, Montas, Sacha, Cranford, James A., House, Joseph B., Lukela, Michael P., Santen, Sally A. Anything but Shadowing! Early Clinical Reasoning in Emergency Department Improves Clinical Skills. In Western Journal of Emergency Medicine: Integrating Emergency Care with Population Health, Volume 19, Issue 1, 2018.

Yazdani, S., Abardeh, MH. Clinical Reasoning in Medicine: A Concept Analysis. Journal of Medical Education, 2018.


Audétat MC, Laurin S, Dory V, Charlin B & Nendaz M. R. Diagnosis and management of clinical reasoning difficulties: Part I. Clinical reasoning supervision and educational diagnosis. 2017, Medical Teacher.

Audétat MC, Laurin S, Dory V, Charlin B & Nendaz M. R. Diagnosis and management of clinical reasoning difficulties: Part II. Clinical reasoning difficulties: Management and remediation strategies. 2017, Medical Teacher.

Carvalho Emília Campos de, Oliveira-Kumakura Ana Railka de Souza, Morais Sheila Coelho Ramalho Vasconcelos. Clinical reasoning in nursing: teaching strategies and assessment tools. Rev. Bras. Enferm.  [Internet]. 2017  June [cited  2017  June  02];  70(3): 662-668.

Chew et al. Investing in the use of a checklist during differential diagnoses consideration: what’s the trade-off? BMC Medical Education, (2017), 17:234.
Chime NO, Pusic MV, Auerbach M, Mehta R, Scherzer DJ, Van Ittersum W, McAninch B, Fein DM, Seelbach E, Zaveri P, Jackson JM, Kessler D, Chang TP. Script Concordance Testing to Determine Infant Lumbar Puncture Practice Variation. Pediatric Emergency Care 2017.
Cooke, Suzette MD, PhD; Lemay, Jean-Francois MD. Transforming Medical Assessment: Integrating Uncertainty Into the Evaluation of Clinical Reasoning in Medical Education. Academic Medicine: June 2017 – Volume 92 – Issue 6 – p 746–751.

Cruit J, Frederick C, Blickensderfer B, Keebler JR, Guinn T. Predicting General Aviation Pilots’ Weather-Related Performance through a Scenario-Based Assessment. Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting. 1 sept 2017;61(1):2000-4.

de Kwaadsteniet Leontien, York Hagmayer. Clinicians’ Personal Theories of Developmental Disorders Explain Their Judgments of Effectiveness of Interventions. Clinical Psychological Science. August 11, 2017.

Deschênes M-F, Goudreau J. Addressing the development of both knowledge and clinical reasoning in nursing through the perspective of script concordance: An integrative literature review. Journal of Nursing Education and Practice 2017, Vol. 7, No. 12, pp. 28-38.

Enser M, Moriceau J, Abily J, Damm C, Occhiali E, Besnier E, Clavier T, Lefevre-Scelles A, Dureuil B, Compère V. Background noise lowers the performance of anaesthesiology residents’ clinical reasoning when measured by script concordance: A prospective randomised. European Journal of Anaesthesiology 2017.

Feigenbaum, D. F., Boscardin, C. K., Frieden, I. J. and Mathes, E. F.D. Can You See Me Now? Video Supplementation for Pediatric Teledermatology Cases. Pediatr Dermatol, 2017.

Funk, Kylee A., Kolar, Claire, Schweiss, Sarah K., Tingen, Jeffrey M., Janke, Kristin K.. Experience with the script concordance test to develop clinical reasoning skills in pharmacy students. Currents in Pharmacy Teaching and Learning, 2017 Nov;9(6): 1031-1041.

Geisler, Paul.. Use of Computer Based Virtual Scripts to Assess Clinical Reasoning Based Competency Outcomes in Undergraduate Athletic Training Students. Ithaca College, It2017.

Griffits, S., Hines, S., Moloney, C., & Ralph, N. Characteristics and processes of clinical reasoning in nurses and factors related to its use: a scoping review protocol. JBI database System Rev Implement Rep 2017; 15(12):2832–2836.

Joseph C, Conradsson D, Nilsson Wikmar L, Rowe M. Structured feedback on students’ concept maps: the proverbial path to learning? BMC Medical Education. 2017;17(1):90.

Karila L, et al. Le test de concordance de script : un outil pédagogique multimodal. La Revue de Médecine Interne (2017).

Kiesewetter J, Fischer F, Fischer MR. Collaborative Clinical Reasoning—A Systematic Review of Empirical Studies. Journal of Continuing Education in the Health Professions. 2017;37(2):123-8.

Lafond C., Gagnon, R., Dyer, J.-O., Charlin B., Lefebvre, C. et Kazitani D. Show Me What You See – An Easy Way to Assess Thoracic Imaging Learning. Association for Medical Education in Europe – 2017 – Helsinki.

LaSpina LM, Dominick C. New Teaching Tool Aims to Improve Dental Hygiene Students’ Clinical Assessment of Oral Lesions. Journal of Dental and Oral Health 2017;3(3):065.

Le raisonnement clinique. L’infirmière magazine 2017;382:44-49.

Linsen A, Elshout G, Pols D, Zwaan L, Mamede S. Education in Clinical Reasoning: An Experimental Study on Strategies to Foster Novice Medical Students’ Engagement in Learning Activities. Health Professions Education 2017.

Madani, A., Gornitsky, J., Watanabe, Y. et al. World J Surg. Measuring Decision-Making During Thyroidectomy: Validity Evidence for a Web-Based Assessment Tool. World Journal of Surgery, 06 November 2017, pp 1–8.

McBee, E., Ratcliffe, T., Picho, K., Lambert S., Artino Jr., A.R, Yepes-Rios, A. M.,  Masel, J., Vleuten, Cees van der. and Durning, S. J. Contextual factors and clinical reasoning: differences in diagnostic and therapeutic reasoning in board certified versus resident physicians. In BMC Medical Education BMC series, 2017, 17:211.

Nafea ET, Dennick R. Clinical reasoning skills in final-year dental students: A qualitative cross-curricula comparison. European Journal of Dental Education 2017.

Nseir S, Elkalioubie A, Deruelle P, Lecroix D, Gosset D. Accuracy of script concordance tests in fourth-year medical students. International Journal of Medical Education 2017;8:63-69.

Olupeliyawa, Asela. Medical Education: Clinical Reasoning: Implications and strategies for postgraduate medical education. Journal of the Postgraduate Institute of Medicine, 2017; 4 (2): E59 1-5.

Pelaccia T, Tardif J, Triby E, Charlin B. A novel approach to study medical decision-making in the clinical setting: The “own-point-of-view” perspective. Academic Emergency Medicine 2017.

Power A, Lemay JF, Cooke S. Justify Your Answer: The Role of Written Think Aloud in Script Concordance Testing. Teaching and Learning in Medicine 2017;29(1):59-67.

Royan, R. et al. Anything but Shadowing! Early Clinical Reasoning in Emergency Department Improves Clinical Skills. In Western Journal of Emergency Medicine: Integrating Emergency Care with Population Health, December 22, 2017, pp. 177-184.

Schubach, Fabian, Goos, Matthias, Fabry, Götz, Vach, Werner, and Boeker, Martin. Virtual patients in the acquisition of clinical reasoning skills: does presentation mode matter? A quasi-randomized controlled trial. BMC Medical Education, 2017.

Smith, Jennifer. Application du test de concordance : étude exploratoire du développement de la compétence à évaluer les élèves chez les enseignants. Mémoire de Maîtrise, Université d’Ottawa, 2017, 137 pages.

Wan SH, Duggan P, Tor E, Hudson JN. Association between candidate total scores and response pattern in script concordance testing of medical students. Focus on Health Professional Education: A Multi-Professional Journal. 4 août 2017;18(2):26‑35.

Welch P, Plummer D, Young L, Quirk F, Larkins S, Evans R, Gupta TS. Grounded theory: A lens to understanding clinical reasoning. MedEdPublish 2017.

Zamani S, Amini M, Masoumi SZ, Delavari S, Namaki MJ, Kojuri J. The comparison of the key feature of clinical reasoning and multiple choice examinations in clinical decision makings ability. Biomedical Research 2017;28(3):1115-1119.


Ali Z, Roudsarai R, Satterthwaite, J. Clinical scenario-based assessments to measure reasoning in complex cases: Are we fully realising their potential in specialty training? Faculty Dental journal 2016; 7(1) :28-33.

Bazin J, Compère V. Le développement professionnel continue (DPC) et le Collège des anesthésistes-réanimateurs français (CFAR). Le Praticien en anesthésie réanimation 2016;20(1):1-5.

Bertrand C, Dory V, Pelaccia T, Durand E, Vaux J, Charlin B, Hodges B. Choisir un outil d’évaluation. Dans Pelaccia T, directeur. Comment (mieux) former et évaluer les étudiants en médecine et en sciences de la santé? Bruxelles, Belgique: De Boeck Supérieur; 2016. p. 357-370.

Bertrand C, Pelaccia T, Durand E, Revaux J, Leveque M, Delacour C, Montandon F, Charlin B, Hodges B. Construire et utiliser les outils d’évaluation choisis. Dans Pelaccia T, directeur. Comment (mieux) former et évaluer les étudiants en médecine et en sciences de la santé? Bruxelles, Belgique: De Boeck Supérieur; 2016. p. 371-396.

Charlin B, Fernandez N. Préparer et animer une formation par concordance. Dans Pelaccia T, directeur. Comment (mieux) former et évaluer les étudiants en médecine et en sciences de la santé? Bruxelles, Belgique: De Boeck Supérieur; 2016. p. 325-340.

Collard A, Brédart S, Bourguignon JP. Context impact of clinical scenario on knowledge transfer and reasoning capacity in a medical problem-based learning curriculum. Higher Education Research & Development 2016;35(2):242-253.

Compère V, Abily J, Moriceau J et al.  Residents in tutored practice exchange groups have better medical reasoning as measured by script concordance test: a controlled, nonrandomized study. Journal of Clinical Anesthesia 2016; 32:236-241.

Couraud S, Girard P, Girard N, Souquet PJ, Coiffard B, Charlin B, Milleron B. Évaluation des connaissances sur le dépistage du cancer par test de concordance de script. Revue des maladies respiratoires 2016; 33(5):333-342.

Decaluwe K, Degryse J, Vaes B. Evaluating the scripts and thresholds of general practitioners for diagnosing heart failure in elderly people. BMC Family Practice 2016; 17:86.

Dhaliwal G, Ilgen J. Clinical Reasoning: Talk the Talk or Just Walk the Walk? J Grad Med Educ 2016;8:274–276.

Duggan P, Charlin B. Introducing recent medical graduates as members of Script Concordance Test expert reference panels: what impact? MedEdPublish 2016;5(2)32.

Faucher C, Dufour-Guindon MP, Lapointe G, Gagnon R, Charlin B.  Assessing clinical reasoning in optometry using the script concordance test. Clinical and Experimental Optometry 2016;99:280-286.

Faucher C, Pelaccia, Nendaz M, Audetat MC, Charlin B. Un professionnel de santé qui résout efficacement les problèmes : le raisonnement clinique. Dans Pelaccia T, directeur. Comment (mieux) former et évaluer les étudiants en médecine et en sciences de la santé? Bruxelles, Belgique: De Boeck Supérieur; 2016. p. 33-44.

Fernandez N, Foucault A, Dubé S, Robert D, Lafond C, Vincent AM, Kassis J, Kazitani D, Charlin B. Learning-by-Concordance (LbC): introducing undergraduate students to the complexity and uncertainty of clinical practice. Canadian Medical Education Journal 2016;7(2):e104-113.

Findyartini A, Hawthorne L, McColl G, Chiavaroli N. How clinical reasoning is taught and learned: Cultural perspectives from the University of Melbourne and Universitas Indonesia. BMC Medical Education 2016; 16:185.

Fisher B, Rourke L. Developing, maintaining, and teaching clinical diagnostic expertise. Canadian Journal of General Internal Medicine 2016;11(1) : 16-24.

Goos M, Schubach F, Seifert G, Boeker M. Validation of undergraduate medical student script concordance test (SCT) scores on the clinical assessment of the acute abdomen. BMC Surgery 2016;16:57.

Hayward J, Cheung A, Velji A et al. Script-theory virtual case: A novel tool for education and research. Medical Teacher. 2016; doi:10.3109/0142159X.2016.1170776

Iravani K, Amini M, Doostkam A et al. The validity and reliability of script concordance test in otolaryngology residency training. Journal of Advances in Medical Education & Professionalism 2016;4(2):93-96.

Kazour F, Richa S, Zoghbi M et al. Using the script concordance test to evaluate clinical reasoning skills in psychiatry. Academic Psychiatry 2016, DOI 10.1007/s40596-016-0539-6

Kicklighter T, Barnum M, Geisler P et al. Validation of the Quantitative Diagnostic Thinking Inventory for Athletic Training: A pilot study. Athletic Training Education Journal 2016;11(1):58-67.

Lafond C. Apprentissage par concordance de perception en imagerie thoracique / Using Visual Modelling Software to Train Students in Thoracic Imaging. CAME Voice/Voix, juin 2016.

Lafond C, Charlin B, Kazitani D. Apprentissage par concordance de perception en imagerie thoracique. Canadian Conference on Medical Education 2016, Montreal.

Lal P. From rote to reasoning: The paradigm shift required in medical entrance
examination and beyond! MAMC. Journal of Medical Science 2016; 2(1):1-5.

Lovett S, Roche J, Hunter S, Symonds I, Tomlinson N, Gagnon R, Charlin B, Mattes J. Respective value of the traditional clinical rotation and high fidelity simulation on the acquisition of clinical reasoning skills in medical students – A Randomized Controlled Trial. MedEdPublish 2016; http://dx.doi.org/10.15694/mep.2016.000037

Madani A, Watanabe Y, Bilgic E, et al. Measuring intra-operative decision-making during laparoscopic cholecystectomy: validity evidence for a novel interactive Web-based assessment tool. Surgical Endoscopy 2016. http://doi.org/10.1007/s00464-016-5091-7

Maceina T, Valickas G, Sipylaite J, Macas A, Olsevka J, Puidokas P. Clinical decision-making of anesthesiology residents in emergency medical care. International Journal of Psychology: A Biopsychosocial Approach 2016;19:9-34.

Pelaccia T, Tardif J, Triby E et al. Do emergency physicians trust their patients? Internal and Emergency Medicine 2016. http://doi.org/10.1007/s11739-016-1410-1

Pennaforte T, Moussa A, Loye N et al. Exploring a new simulation approach to improve clinical reasoning teaching and assessment: Randomized trial protocol. JMIR Research Protocols 2016;5(1):e26.

Powell, Alyssa et al. Justify Your Answer: The Role of Written Think Aloud in Script Concordance Testing. Teaching and Learning in Medicine. 1. 2016.

Sadhuwong K, Koraneekij P, Natakuatoong O. Effects of a blended learning model integrating situated multimedia lessons and cognitive apprenticeship method on the clinical reasoning skills of nursing students. J Health Res. 2016; 30(6): 421-31.

Sibert, L. Test de concordance de script et développement professionnel continu (DPC) : un mariage qui ne peut être que réussi! Revue des Maladies Respiratoires 2016;33:329–331.

St-Denis K. La prise de décision d’urgence chez les pompiers premiers répondants : une illustration de la pertinence d’une approche empirique en éthique professionnelle. BioéthiqueOnline. 2016. 5(33).

Wycliffe-Jones K, Hnatiuk, M, Topps D et al. The use of a script concordance test to assess family medicine residents’ clinical reasoning skills in intra-partum care. Communication presented at the 2016 Canadian Conference on Medical Education, Montreal, Quebec, Canada.


Cobb K, Brown G, Hammond R et al. Students’ Perceptions of the Script Concordance Test and Its Impact on Their Learning Behavior: A Mixed Methods Study.JVME 42(1) : 45-52.

Compère V, Morieceau J, Gouin A et al. Residents in tutored practice exchange groups have better medical reasoning as measured by the script concordance test: A pilot study. Anaesth Crit Care Pain Med (2015) http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/ j.accpm.2014.12.001

Cooke SR. Development of a method to measure clinical reasoning in pediatric residents: The Pediatric Script Concordance Test. Thesis in Graduate program in medical science, 2015; University of Calgary.

Custers E. Thirty years of illness scripts: Theoretical origins and practical applications. Medical Teacher 2015, 37: 457–462

Drolet, P. Assessing clinical reasoning in anesthesiology: Making the case for the
Script Concordance Test. Anaesth Crit Care Pain Med 2015; 34 : 5-7.

Ducos G, Lejus C, Sztark F et al. The Script Concordance Test in anesthesiology: Validation of a new tool for assessing clinical reasoning. Anaesth Crit Care Pain Med (2015). http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.accpm.2014.11.001

Dumont K, Loye N et Goudreau J. Le potentiel diagnostique des questions d’un test de concordance de scripts pour évaluer le raisonnement clinique infirmier. Pédagogie Médicale 2015.

Foucault et al. Learning medical professionalism with the online concordance-of-judgment learning tool (CJLT): A pilot study. Medical Teacher 2015; 37(10):955-960.

Gilbert A. Élaboration et évaluation d’un test de concordance de script pour mesurer le raisonnement clinique infirmier relatif à l’usage optimal des médicaments en centre d’hébergement. Mémoire de maîtrise, Université de Sherbrooke; 2015.

Lubarsky S, Dory V, Audétat MC et al. Using script theory to cultivate illness script formation and clinical reasoning in health professions education. Canadian Medical Education Journal. 2015;6(2):e61-e70.

Lubarsky S, Dory V, Meterissian S, Lambert C, Gagnon, R. Effects of gaming and guessing on script concordance test scores. AMEE 2015 Abstract Book;23.

Modi JN, Gupta P, Singh T. Teaching and assessing clinical reasoning skills. Indian Pediatrics. 2015;52:787-794.

Monteiro S et Norman G. Diagnostic Reasoning: Where We’ve Been, Where We’re Going. Teaching and Learning in Medicine 2015, 25(S1), S26–S32.

Patocka C, Turner J and Wiseman J. What adult electrocardiogram (ECG) diagnoses and/or findings do residents in emergency medicine need to know? Canadian Association of Emergency Physicians (2015).

Pelaccia T, Tardif J, Triby E et al. From Context Comes Expertise: How Do Expert Emergency Physicians Use Their Know-How to Make Decisions? Annals of Emergency Medicine 2015.

Wan, SHUsing the script concordance test to assess clinical reasoning skills in undergraduate and postgraduate medicine. Hong Kong Med J 2015;21:Epub.

Wilson A, Pike G, Humbert A. Testing for Multilevel Dimensionality: A Higher-Order Factor Analysis of a Script Concordance Test. Medical Science Educators. 2015;25(4):439-446.

Yarris L, Juve A, Coates W et al. Critical Appraisal of Emergency Medicine Education Research: The Best Publications of 2014. Society for Academic Emergency Medicine 2015.


Ahmadi SF, Khoshkish S, Soltani-Arabshahi K et al. Challenging script concordance test reference standard by evidence: do judgments by emergency medicine consultants agree with likelihood ratios? International Journal of Emergency Medicine 2014, 7:34.

Balasooriya C, Rhee J, Shulruf B et al. Evaluating the Guideline Enhancement Tool (GET): an innovative clinical training tool to enhance the use of hypertension guidelines in general practice. BMC Medical Education 2014, 14:1046.

Berkowitz R, D’Alton M, Goldberg J et al. The case for an electronic fetal heart rate monitoring credentialing examination. American Journal of Obstetrics & Gynecology, 2014, 210 : 204–207

Berkowitz R , D’Alton M, Goldberg J et al. Reply : The case for an Electronic Fetal Heart Rate Monitoring Credentialing Examination. American Journal of Obstetrics & Gynecology;  2014, 210 : 592.

Bissinger R, Engelhard G. Letter to the Editor : The case for an electronic fetal heart rate monitoring credentialing examination. American Journal of Obstetrics & Gynecology, 2014, 210 : 591–592.

Boulouffe C, Doucet B, Muschart X, Charlin B, Vanpee D. Assessing clinical reasoning using a script concordance test with electrocardiogram in an emergency medicine clerkship rotation. Emergency Medicine Journal 2014;31:313-316.

Claessens YE, Wannepain S, Gestin S, Magdelein X, Ferretti E, Guilly, Charlin B, Pelaccia T. How emergency physicians use biomarkers: insights from a qualitative assessment of script concordance tests. Emergency Medicine Journal 2014;31:238-241.

Côté S, Tanguay A, Gagnon R, et al. Élaboration et validation d’un test de concordance de script pour évaluer le raisonnement clinique des infirmières en contexte de détérioration de la condition clinique. Pédagogie Médicale 2014; 15 (1): 7–20.

Dory V, Charlin B, Vanpee D et al. Multifaceted Assessment in a Family Medicine Clerkship: A Pilot Study. Family Medicine 2014; 46 (10) : 755-60

Foucault A, Dubé S, Fernandez N et al. The Concordance of Judgment Learning Tool. Medical Education 2014; 48 : 541-42.

Guerrasio J, Aagaard E. Methods and Outcomes for the Remediation of Clinical Reasoning. J Gen Intern Med 2014; 29 (12):1607–14.

Lubarsky S, Durning S, Charlin B. The Script Concordance Test: A tool for assessing clinical data interpretation under conditions of uncertainty. Academic Medicine 2014;89(7):1089.

Pelaccia T, Tardif, J, Triby, E, et al. How and When Do Expert Emergency Physicians Generate and Evaluate Diagnostic Hypotheses? American College of Emergency Physicians. Ann Emerg Med 2014; 64:575-585.

See, K, Tan, K, Lim, TThe script concordance test for clinical reasoning: re-examining its utility and potential weakness. Med Educ, 2014;48(11):1069-1077.

Tan, K, Tan, N, Kandiah, N, Samarasekera, D, Ponnamperuma, G. Validating a script concordance test for assessing neurological localization and emergencies. European Journal of Neurology, 2014;21(11):1419-1422.

Wears, R. Diagnosing Diagnosis. Ann Emerg Med. 2014;64:586-587.

Wilson, A, Pike, G, Humbert, A. Analyzing Script Concordance Test Scoring. Methods and Items by Difficulty and Type. Teaching and Learning in Medicine 2014; 26 : 135-145.


Audétat MC, Laurin S, Sanche G, et al. Clinical reasoning difficulties : A taxonomy for clinical teachers. Medical Teacher, 2013;35(3):e984-9.

Gantelet M, Demeester A, Pauly V, Gagnon R, Charlin B. Impact du panel de référence sur les qualités psychométriques d’un test de concordance de script développé en formation initiale des sages-femmes. Pédagogie médicale 2013;14(3):157-168.

Giet D, Massart V, Gagnon R, Charlin B. Le test de concordance de script en 20 questions. Pédagogie médicale 2013 ;14(1):39-48.

Hornos EH, Pleguezuelos M, Brailovsky CA,  Harillo LD, Dory V, Charlin B. (2013) The practicum script concordance test : An online continuing professional development format to foster reflection on clinical practice. Journal of continuing education in the health professions, 33(1):59-66.

Esteves J, Bennison M, Thomson O. Script concordance test: Insights from the literature and early stages of its implementation in osteopathy. International Journal of Osteopathic Medicine, 2013;16:231-239.

Lineberry M, Kreiter CD, Bordage G. Threats to validity in the use and interpretation of script concordance test scores. Medical Education, 2013;47:1175–1183.

Lubarsky S, Dory V, Duggan P, Gagnon R, Charlin B. Script concordance testing: From theory to practice: AMEE Guide No.75. Medical Teacher, 2013;35(3):184-193.

Lubrasky S, Gagnon R, Charlin B. Scoring the Script Concordance Test: not a black and white issue. Medical Education, 2013;47:1152–1161.

Mathieu S, Couderc M, Glace B et al. Construction and utilization of a script concordance test as an assessment tool for dcem3 (5th year) medical students in rheumatology. BMC Medical Education 2013; 13:166.

Pleguezuelos E, Hornos E, Dory V et al. Script concordance testing in continuing professional development: local or international reference panels? Adv Health Sci Educ Theory Pract, 2013;18(4):779-85.

Petrucci AM, Nouh T, Boutros M, Gagnon R, Meterissian SH. Assessing clinical judgment using the Scirpt Concordance test : the importance of using specialty-specific experts to develop the scoring key. The American Journal of Surgery, 2013;205:137-140.

Russell J. Critical synthesis package: Script concordance testing (sct). Mededportal publications; 2013.


Charlin B, Lubarsky S, Millette B et al. Clinical reasoning processes: unravelling complexity through graphical representation. Medical Education, 2012;46:454-463.

Dawson T.E. Can Script Concordance Testing be Utilized in Nursing Education to Accurately Assess Clinical Reasoning Skills? Master Thesis, Western Carolina University June 2012, 98 pages.

Dory V, Gagnon R, Vanpee D et al. How to construct and implement script concordance tests : insights from a systematic review. Medical Education, 2012;46:552-563.

Duggan P, Charlin B. Summative assessment of 5th year medical students’ clinical reasoning by script concordance test: requirements and challenges. BMC Med Educ, 2012;12:29.

Goldie J.. Assessment of professionalism: A consolidation of current thinking. Medical Teacher, 2013;35:2, e952-e956.

Journeau S, Luraine R, Desrues B. Intérêt des tests de concordance de script pour les évaluer le raisonnement et l’organisation des connaissances des étudiants de quatrième année des études médicales en France. Pédagogie Médicale, 2012;13(4):225-232.

Kelly W, Durning S, Denton G. Comparing a script concordance examination to a multiple-choice examination on a core internat medicine clerkship. Teach Learn Med, 2012;24(3):187-193.

Nouh T, Boutros M, Reid S et al. The script concordance test as a measure of clinical reasoning: a national validation study. The American Journal of Surgery, 2012;203:530-534.

Kreiter C. Commentary: The response process validity of a script concordance test item. Adv in Health Sci Educ 2012;17:7–9.

Le Loët X, Lequerré T, Cantagrel A, Sibert L. Mise en oeuvre, en situation professionnelle, des recommandations de la HAS, par la méthode du test de concordance de script combinée à l’analyse actualisée de la littérature. Revue du Rhumatisme, 2012;79(3):228-233.

Marie-Ève Latreille. Évaluation du raisonnement clinique d’étudiantes et d’infirmières dans le domaine de la pédiatrie, à l’aide d’un test de concordance de script. Thèse postdoctorale, Université d’Ottawa, 2012, 45 pages.

Lubarsky S, Gagnon R, Charlin B. Script concordance test item response process: The argument for probability versus typicality. Adv in Health Sci Educ, 2012;17:11–13.

Piovezan R, Custodia O, Cendoroglo M et al. Assessment of undergraduation clinical reasoning in geriatric medecine : application of a script concordance test. Journal of the American Geriatrics Society, 2012;60:1946-1950.

Van Bruggen L, Manrique-van Woudenbergh M, Spierenburg E et al. Preferred question types for computer-based assessment of clinical reasoning: a literature study. Perspect Med Educ, 2012;1:162–171.

Van den Broek S, van Asperen M, Custers E et al. Effects of two different instructional formats on scores and reliability of a script concordance test. Perspect Med Educ (2012) 1:119–128.


Amini M, Moghadami M, Javad Kojuri J et al. An innovative method to assess clinical reasoning skills: Clinical reasoning tests in the second national medical science Olympiad in Iran. BMC Research Notes 2011, 4:41. BMC Research Notes 2011, 4:418.

Bursztejn AC, Cuny JF, Adam JL, Sido L, Schmutz JL, de Korwin JD, Latarche C, Braun M, Barbaud A. Usefulness  of the script concordance test in dermatology. JEADV, 2011;25 :1471-1475.

Caire F, Marin B et Cuny E. Utilisation du test de concordance de script au cours du deuxième cycle des études médicales : expérience dans l’enseignement de la neurochirurgie. Pédagogie médicale, 2011;12(1):29-36.

Deschênes MF, Charlin B, Gagnon R, Goudreau J. Use of a script concordance test to assess development of clinical reasoning in nursing students. Journal of Nursing Education, 2011;50(7):381-7.

Gagnon R, Lubarsky S, Lambert C, Charlin B. Optimization of answer keys for script concordance testing: Should we exclude deviant respondents, deviant responses, or neither? Adv Health Sci Educ, 2011;16(5):601-8.

Humbert AJ, Besinger B, Miech EJ. Assessing clinical reasoning skills in scenarios of uncertainty: convergent validity for a script concordance test in an emergency medicine clerkship ans residency. Acad Emerg Med, 2011;18(6):627-34.

Humbert A, Johson M, Miech E, Friedberg F, Grackin J, Seidman PA. Assessment of clinical reasoning: A Script Concordance test designed for pre-clinical medical students. Medical Teacher, 2011;33:472-477.

Kania R, Verillaud B, Tran H, Gagnon R, Kazitani D, Tran Ba Huy P, Herman P, Charlin B. Online Script Concordance Test for Clinical Reasoning Assessment in Otorhinolaryngology: The Association Between Performance and Clinical Experience. Arch Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg, 2011;137(8):751-755.

Lubarsky S, Charlin B, Cook DA, Chalk C, van der Vleuten C. Script concordance testing: a review of published validity evidence. Med Educ, 2011;45:329-338.

Lurie S. Towards greater clarity in the role of ambiguity in clinical reasoning. Medical Education, 2011;45:326-328.

Monnier P, Bedard MJ, Gagnon R, Charlin B. The relationship between script concordance test scores in an obstetrics-gynecology rotation and global performance assessments in the curriculum. International Journal of Medical Education, 2011;2:3-6.

Pelaccia T, Tardif J, Truby E, Charlin B. An analysis of clinical reasoning through a recent and comprehensive approach: the dual-process theory. Medical Education Online, 2011;16:5890.

Pelaccia T, Tardif J, Triby R, Ammirati C, Bertrand C, Charlin B. Comment les médecins raisonnent-ils pour poser des diagnostics et prendre des décisions thérapeutiques? Les enjeux en médecine d’urgence. Ann. Fr. Med. Urgence, 2011;1:77-84.

Reed W, Debra K, et al. Tracking Development of Clinical Reasoning Ability Across Five Medical Schools Using a Progress Test. Academic medicine, 2011;86(9):1148-54.


Boulouffe C, Charlin B, Vanpee D. Evaluation of Clinical Reasoning in Basic Emergencies Using a Script Concordance Test. American Journal of Pharmaceutical Education 2010;74(10):Article 194.

Charlin B, Gagnon R, Lubarsky S, Lambert C, Meterissian S, Chalk C, Goudreaut J, van der Vleuten C. Assessment in the context of uncertaintly using the script concordance test: More meaning for scores. Teaching and Learning in Medecine, 2010;22(3):180-186.

Goulet F, Jacques A, Gagnon R, Charlin B, Shabah A. Poorly performing physicians: does the Script Concordance Test detect bad clinical reasoning? J Contin Educ Health Prof, 2010;30(3):161-6.

Lee A, Joynt G, Lee A, Ho A, Groves M, Vlantis A, Ma R, Fung C, Aun C. Using Illness Scripts to Teach Clinical Reasoning Skills to Medical Students. Fam Med, 2010;42(4):255-61.

Lemay JF, Donnon T, Charlin B. The reliability and validity of a paediatric script concordance test with medical students, paediatric residents and experienced paediatricians. CMEJ 2010;1(2):e89-e95.

Palmer E, Duggan P, Devitt P, Russell R. The modified essay question: Its exit from the exit examination? Medical Teacher, 2010;32:e300-e307.

Park AJ, Barber MD, Bent AE, Dooley YT, Dancz C, Sutkin G, Jelovsek JE. Assessment of intraoperative judgement during gynecologic surgery using the Script Concordance Test. Am J Obstet Gynecol 2010;203:240.e1-6.

Ramaekers S, Kremer W, Pilot A, van Beukelen P, van Keulen H. Assessment of competence in clinical reasoning and decision-making under uncertainty: the script concordance test method. Assessment & Evaluation in Higher Education, 2010;35(6):661-673.

Ross PT, Uijtdehaage S, Lypson ML. Reflections on culture: views on script concordance testing. Med Educ, 2010;44(5):505-506.

Ruiz J, Tunuguntla R, Charlin B, Ouslander J, Symes S, Gagnon R, Phancao F and Roos B. The Script Concordance Test as a Measure Clinical Reasoning Skills in Geriatric Urinary Incontinence. J Am Geriatr Soc, 2010;58:2178-2184.


Brownell AKW. Editorial: The script concordance test. Can. J. Neurol. Sci., 2009;36:272-273.

Carrière B, Gagnon R, Charlin B, Downing S, Bordage G. Assessing Clinical Reasoning in Pediatric Medicine: Validity Evidence for a Script Concordance Test. Annals of Emergency Medicine, 2009;53(5):647-652.

Cohen LJ, Fitzgerald SG, Lane S, Boninger ML, Minkel J, McCue M. Validation of the Seating and Mobility Script Concordance Test. Assistive Technology, 2009;21(1):47-56.

Collard A, Gelaes S, Vanbelle S, Bredard S, Defraigne J, Boniver J, Bourguignon JP. Reasoning versus knowledge retention and ascertainment throughout a problem-based learning curriculum. Medical Education, 2009;43:854–865.

Joly L, Braun M, Benetos A. Apprentissage du raisonnement clinique et test de concordance de script en gériatrie : intérêt dans la formation en stage des étudiants hospitaliers. Revue de médecine interne, 2009;30:S77-S151.

Kreiter C, Bergus G. The validity of performance-based measures of clinical reasoning and alternative approaches. Medical Education, 2009;43:320–325.

Lambert C, Gagnon R, Nguyen D, Charlin B. The script concordance test in radiation oncology: validation study of a new tool to assess clinical reasoning. Radiation Oncology, 2009;9(4):7.

Lubarsky S, Charlk C, Kazitani D, Gagnon R, Charlin B. The script concordance test: A new tool assessing clinical judgement in neurology. Can. J. Neurol. Sci., 2009;36:326-331.

Sibert L, Giorgi R, Dahamna B, Doucet J, Charlin B, Darmoni SJ. Is a web-based concordance test feasible to assess therapeutic decision-making skills in a French context? Medical Teacher, 2009;31(4):e162-8.


John W Devlin, Francois Marquis, Richard R Riker, Tracey Robbins, Erik Garpestad, Jeffrey J Fong, Dorothy Didomenico and Yoanna Skrobik. Combined didactic and scenario-based education improves the ability of intensive care unit staff to recognize delirium at the bedside. Critical Care, 2008, 12: pp 1-6.

Devlin J, Marquis F, Riker R, Robbins T, Garpestad E, Fong J, Didomenico D, Skrobik Y. Combined didactic and scenario-based education improves the ability of intensive care unit staff to recognize delirium at the bedside. Critical Care, 2008;12:R19.

Fournier JP, Demeester A, Charlin B. Script Concordance Tests: Guidelines for Construction. BMC Medical informations and Decision Making, 2008;8:18.

Gagnon R, Charlin B, Lambert C, Carrière B, der Vleuten V. Script Concordance Testing: More Cases or More Questions? Adv in Health Sci Educ., 2008;14(13):1382-4996.

Gibot S, Bollaert PE. Le test de concordance de script comme outil d’évaluation formative en réanimation médicale. Pédagogie Médicale, 2008;9:7-18.

Kalamarides M, Caire F, Dauger F, Brassier G, Moreau JJ. Création d’outils d’autoévaluation pour une formation médicale continue en ligne. Modélisation à propos d’une formation. Neurochirurgie, 2008;54:21-27.

Reed GW, Debra LK, Hoffman R. Medical Student Acquisition of Clinical Working Knowledge. Teaching and Learning in Medicine, 2008;20(1):5-10.

Scott CS. Developmental Approach to Evaluating Competence in Clinical Reasoning. Journal of Veterinary Medical Education, 2008;35(3):375-381.

Serratrice J, Bourgeois M, Thirion X, Pauli V, Benyamine A, Enéa N,Weiller PJ, Disdier P. Utilisation du test de concordance de script comme indicateur de suivi des pratiques professionnelles : application au thème des maladies systémiques vues par le médecin généraliste et l’interniste. Revue de médecine interne, 2008;29S:S315.

Turnwald G, Stone E, Bristol D, Fuentealda C, Hardie L, Hellyer P, Jaeger L, Kerwin S, Kochevar D, Lissemore K, Olsen C, Rogers K, Sabin B, Swanson C, Warner A. Assessing clinical Competency: Reports from discussion groups. JVME, 2008;35(3):343-353.


Charlin B, Boshuizen HPA, Custers EJFM, Feltovich PJ. Scripts and clinical reasoning. Medical Education, 2007;41:1178-1184.

Charlin B, Gagnon R, Sauvé É, Coletti M. Composition of the panel of reference for concordance tests: Do teaching functions have an impact on examinees’ ranks and absolute scores? Medical Teacher, 2007;29(1): 49-53.

Meterissian S, Zabolotny B, Gagnon R, Charlin B. Is the script concordance test a valid instrument for assessment of intraoperative decision-making skills? The American Journal of Surgery, 2007;193:248–251.

Petrella R, Davis P. Improving management of musculoskeletal disorders in primary care: the Joint Adventures Program. Clin Rheumatol, 2007;26:1061-1066.


Bertahud V, Garcelon N, Marin F, Belhadj I, Burgun A, Duvauferrier R. Towards a Specialized Knowledge Base in Medicine: The BIKINI (Blomedical, Knowledge Network) Project. MIE 2006, Maastrich, NL.

Charlin B. Évaluer la dimension d’incertitude du raisonnement clinique, Assessing the uncertainty component of clinical reasoning. Pédagogie médicale, 2006;7(1):5-6.

Charlin B, Gagnon R, Kazi-Tani D, Thivierge R. Le test concordance comme outil d’évaluation en ligne du raisonnement des professionnels en situation d’incertitude. Revue internationale des technologies en pédagogie universitaire, 2006;2(1):22-27.

Charlin B, Gagnon R, Pelletier J, Coletti M, Abi-Rizk G, Nazr C, Sauvé É, Van der Vleuten C. Assessment of clinical reasoning in the context of uncertainty: the effect of variability within the reference panel. Medical Education, 2006;40:848-854.

Fournier JP, Thiercelin D, Pulcini C, AlunniI-Perret V, Gilbert E, Minguet JM, Bertrand F. Évaluation du raisonnement clinique en médecine d’urgence : les tests de concordance des scripts décèlent mieux l’expérience clinique que les questions à choix multiples à contexte riche. Pédagogie Médicale, 2006;7:20-30.

Gagnon R, Charlin B, Roy L, St-Martin M, Sauvé É, Boshuizen H, Van der Vleuten C. The Cognitive Validity of the Script Concordance Test: A Processing Time Study. Teaching and Learning in Medicine, 2006;18(1):22–27.

Hamdy H, Prasad K, Anderson MB, et al. BEME systematic review: Predictive values of measurements obtained in medical schools and future performance in medical practice. Medical Teacher, 2006;28:103-116.

Khonputsa P, Besinque K, Fisher D, et al. Use of script concordance test to assess pharmaceutical diabetic care: a pilot study in Thailand. Medical Teacher, 2006;28(6):570-573.

Lebeau J, Pagonis D. Le test de concordance de script (TCS): comment évaluer le raisonnement médical en situation d’incertitude? Revue de stomatologie et de Chirurgie Maxillo-faciale, 2006;107:327-329.

Meterissian S. A novel method of assessing clinical reasoning in surgical residents. Surgical Innovation, 2006;13:115-119.

Pintz, C. Assessment of Diagnostic Reasoning with Standardized Patients: Testing the Reliability and Validity of the Diagnostic Reasoning Assessment. PhD Thesis, University of Maryland, 2006, 130 pages.

Sibert L, Darmoni S, Dahamna B, Hellot MF, Weber J, Charlin B. On line clinical reasoning assessment with Script Concordance test in urology; results of a French pilot study. BMC Medical Education, 2006;6:45.


Bertaud V, Lasbleiz J, Duvauferrier R, Garcelon N, Burgun A. Construction d’une base de connaissance biomédicale utilisant la méthode des scripts. Communication présentée au Collège National des Enseignants Odontologistes en Santé Publique, Toulouse, France, mai 2005.

Bland A, Gordon J, Kreiter C. Uncertainty about Uncertainty: Réponses à l’éditeur concernant l’article de Bland. Academic Medecine, 2005.

Bland A, Kreiter C, Gordon J. The Psychometric Properties of Five Scoring Methods Applied to the Script Concordance Test. Academic Medicine, 2005;80:395-399.

Charlin B. Resoning in the context of uncertainty. Academic Medecine, 2005.

Cohen L, Fitzgerald S, Lane S, Boninger M. Development of the Seathing and Mobility Script Concordance Test for Spinal Cord Injury: Obtaining Content Validity Evidence. Asst Technol, 2005;7:122-132.

Gagnon R, Charlin B, Coletti M, Sauvé E, Van der Vleuten C. Assessment in context of uncertainty: How many members are needed on the panel of reference of a script concordance test? Medical Education, 2005;39:204-291.

Lambert C. Le test de concordance de scripts : un outil pour évaluer le raisonnement clinique des résidents en radio-oncologie. Mémoire de maîtrise, 2005; Département de psychopédagogie et d’andragogie, Faculté des études supérieures, Université de Montréal.

Marie I, Sibert L, Roussel F, Hellot MF, Lechevallier J, Weber J. Le test de concordance de script : un nouvel outil d’évaluation du raisonnement et de la compétence clinique en médecine interne? Revue de médecine interne, 2005;26:501-507.

Nendaz M, Charlin B, Leblanc V, Bordage G. Le raisonnement clinique: données issues de la recherche et implications pour l’enseignement. Pédagogie médicale, 2005;6:235-254.

Sibert L, Darmoni SJ, Dahamna B, Weber J, Charlin B. Online clinical reasoning assessment with the Script Concordance test: a feasibility study. BMC Medical Informatics and Decision Making, 2005;5(18).


Brazeau-Lamontagne L., Charlin B, Gagnon R, Samson L, Van der Vleuten C. Measurement of perception and interpretation skills along radiology training: utility of the script concordance approach. Medical Teacher, 2004;26:326-332.

Caire F, Sol JC, Charlin B, Isidori P, Moreau JJ. Le test de concordance de script (TCS) comme outil d’évaluation formative des internes en neurochirurgie : implantation du test sur Internet à l’échelle nationale. Pédagogie médicale, 2004;5:87-94.

Caire F, Sol JC, Moreau JJ, Isidori P, Charlin B. Auto-évaluation des internes en neurochirurgie par tests de concordance de script (TCS), processus d’élaboration des tests. Neurochirurgie, 2004;50:66-72.

Charlin B, Van der Vleuten C. Standardized assessment in context of uncertainty: The script concordance approach. Evaluation and the Health Professions, 2004;27:304-319.

Demeester A. Évaluation du raisonnement clinique des étudiants sages-femmes par le test de concordance de script. Mémoire de maîtrise universitaire de pédagogie des sciences de la santé, 2004; Université Paris 13.

Epstein RM, Dannefer EF, Nofziger AC, et al. Comprehensive assessment of professional competence: The Rochester experiment. Teaching and Learning in Medicine, 2004;16(2):186-196.

Holloway R, Nesbit K, Bordley D, et al. Teaching and evaluating first and second year medical students’ practice of evidence-based medicine. Medical Education, 2004;38(8):868-878.


Braithwaite D, Emery J, de Lusignan S, Sutton S. Using the Internet to conduct surveys ofhealth professionals: a valid alternative? Family Practice, 2003;20:545-551.

Charlin B, Bordage G, Van der Vleuten C. L’évaluation du raisonnement clinique. Pédagogie Médicale, 2003;4:42-51.

Cohen LJ, Fitzgerald S, Lane S, Boninger M. The Development and Validation of the Seating and Mobility Script Concordance Test (SMSCT). Thesis in Health and Rehabilitation Sciences, 2003; University of Pittsburgh.

Houssaini TS, Bono W, Tachfouti N, Maillard D. Pertinence d’un test de concordance de script dans l’évaluation des compétences en Néphrologie des étudiants du deuxième cycle de la faculté de Médecine de Fès. Les Annales Méd Thérapeutique, 2003;1(1):4-10.

Labelle M, Gagnon R, Thivierge RL, Laprise R, Ste-Marie LG, Charlin B. Formation continue en petits groupes sur l’ostéoporose : comparaison d’un atelier basé sur le test de concordance de scripts (TCS) et d’un atelier classique. Pédagogie Médicale, 2003;4:145-153.

Llorcas G. Évaluation de résolution de problèmes mal définis en éthique clinique : variation des scores selon les méthodes de correction et les caractéristiques des jurys. Pédagogie Médicale, 2003;4:26-32.


Charlin B, Desaulniers M, Gagnon R, Blouin D, Van der Vleuten C. Comparison of an aggregate scoring method with a consensus scoring method in a measure of clinical reasoning capacity. Teaching and Learning in Medicine, 2002;14:150-156.

Charlin B, Gagnon R, Sibert L, Van der Vleuten C. Le test de concordance de script : un instrument d’évaluation du raisonnement clinique. Pédagogie Médicale, 2002;3:135-144.

Charlin B, St-Jean M. Le test de concordance de script : un outil pour évaluer le jugement en médecine. Bulletin du CÉFES, Université de Montréal, 2002;6.

Eysenbach G, Wyatt J. Using the Internet for surveys and health research. J Med Internet Res, 2002;4:E13.

Sibert L, Charlin B, Corcos J, Gagnon R, Grise P, van der Vleuten C. Stability of clinical reasoning assessment results with the script concordance test across two different linguistic, cultural and learning environments. Medical Teacher, 2002;24:522-527.

Sibert L, Charlin B, Corcos J, Lechevallier J, Grise P. Assessment of clinical reasoning competence in Urology with the script concordance test: An exploratory study on two sites from different countries. European Urology, 2002;41:227-233.


Brailovsky C, Charlin B, Beausoleil S, Coté S, Van der Vleuten, C. Measurement of Clinical Reflective Capacity Early in Training as a Predictor of Clinical Reasoning Performance at the End of Residency: An Exploratory Study on the Script Concordance Test. Medical Education, 2001;35:430-436.

Sibert L, Charlin B, Corcos J, Gagnon R, Khalaf A, Grise P. Évaluation du raisonnement clinique en urologie : l’apport du test de concordance de script. Progrès en Urologie, 2001;11:1213-1219.

Winslade N. A system to Assess the Achievement of Doctor of Pharmacy Students. American Journal of Pharmaceutical Education, 2001;65:363-392.


Charlin B, Roy L, Brailovsky C, Goulet F, Van der Vleuten C. The Script Concordance Test, a Tool to Assess the Reflective Clinician. Teaching and Learning in Medicine, 2000;12:189-195.

Charlin B, Tardif J, Boshuizen HPA. Scripts and Medical Diagnostic Knowledge: Theory and Applications for Clinical Reasoning Instruction and Research. Academic Medicine, 2000;75:182-190.


Charlin B, Brailovsky CA, Brazeau-Lamontagne L, Samson L, Leduc C. Script Questionnaires: Their Use for Assessment of Diagnostic Knowledge in Radiology. Medical Teacher, 1998;20:567-571.

Charlin B, Brailovsky CA, Leduc C, Blouin D. The Diagnostic Script Questionnaire: A New Tool to Assess a Specific Dimension of Clinical Competence. Advances in Heath Sciences Education, 1998;3:51-58.


Sibert L, Grand’Maison P, Charlin B, Grise P. Evaluation of clinical competence in urology: innovative approach based on performance observation. Prog Urol, 1997;7(4):581–589.